2010-07-15

Musician (樂器與壽命)

剛寫下學拳為什麼可以延壽,再告訴你學什麼樂器會更長命。

幾年前考過 (不是學,也不是玩) 鋼琴,又認真考過薩克斯風 (Saxophone),感覺玩管樂會長命些:一來管樂在同一時間只會有一個音,不像鋼琴要同時讀一大堆音符,又同時按一堆相對應的琴鍵,手指又要不斷在感覺一樣的琴鍵上走位,極傷腦筋;二來管樂迫你用丹田呼吸,暗合氣功原理。不過,如果我就這樣隨口說說便算,那實在對不起我個博士學位。因此我在維基百科抄下了 392 位已逝世的樂手的生卒年份、主要樂器與音樂類型,決定做過統計上的分析。由於時間關係,我只選了鋼琴小提琴來代表弦樂薩克斯風單簧管代表管樂若有高人有時間來個「通殺」,記得告訴我結果。

在討論樂手壽命之前,大家先要理解,壽命受很多因素影響,好像遺傳、性別、疾病、戰爭、生活方式等,這些因素又受國家有多富裕、不同年代的醫學有多發達、食物有多充足等等。舉例,根據世衛的報告,1900 年時我們平均壽命只有 31 歲,到 1950 年上升至 48 歲,2005 年則到達 65.6 歲。這樣看,生於 1756 年的莫札特死於 35 歲,已算是長壽。不過,在我的數據裏,無論十八、十九、抑或二十世紀的音樂家,平均壽命都超過 63,大大高於平均壽命,更有兩位有百歲高壽。可以說,玩音樂的,會較長命

當然,這是個有偏頗的樣本:能在維基百科出現的,都比較有名,亦因而較富有。其實家裏有條件學音樂的,便已較富有。較富裕的環境,自然有較衛生的居所、較有營養的食物、較高機會享有醫療等等。不過,玩音樂的亦特別多吸毒的癮君子。亦可能因為這個原因,玩搖滾的都比較短命,平均只有 55.09 歲:

玩不同音樂類型的音樂家的壽命:F(7, 384) = 3.101, p = .003




不過這個研究純屬無聊搞笑,大家就不必那麼認真;要認真的話,就要去找兩班人,一半玩音樂、一半不准玩,再等他們全死去,我們才能下判斷。

好,言歸正傳。結果發現,玩弦樂的 (M = 65.42) 竟然比玩管樂的 (M = 61.49) 長壽一點點 (t = 2.254, p = .025)!再仔細分析 (Tukey HSD),原來小提琴手特別長命 (M = 68.54),而鋼琴手、薩克斯風手和單簧管手則沒有顯著的分別。

玩不同樂器的音樂家的壽命:F(3, 388) = 4.685, p = .003



 無論如何,數據似乎支持弦樂手會長命些,特別是小提琴。無怪乎熱愛小提琴的愛因斯坦有 76 歲命!也許不斷狂用腦才是長壽的關鍵。看來,我這種可以懶就懶的業餘管樂手,無論如何氣運丹田都不會太長命的了。

13 則留言:

說...

我曾學了頗長時間的鋼琴, 感覺上對鍛鍊記憶力很有幫助. 不過最明顯的得益你知道是什麼嗎 ? 就是不用學打字也自然懂, 而且我現在打英文字的速度是超快 !

狂人 - Paul Sin 說...

真的?那可能因為兩種動作都在用腦部的同一部分有關……

Water Moon 說...

我還剛想放棄學小提琴

匿名 說...

拉二胡有像耍太極一樣,以氣馭弓,有綿長之感覺,神遊太虛,氣貫全弓,武術與音樂融為一體,衡山派掌門人莫大先生尤精於此道。

叔叔

oz 說...

我也學過琴, 現在學吹洞蕭, 希望真的如你所說!

SzeChaiKwok 說...

Interesting, time well spent.

But why would you claim 鋼琴手、薩克斯風手和單簧管手則沒有顯著的分別 while the p value is that small (= .003) with the F test?

Also, don't understand why you claim 玩搖滾的都比較短命 with results from a F test?

Anyway, time well spent as I said.

狂人 - Paul Sin 說...

水月、Oz:

哈,那是否繼續學習與長命,又跟你想不想長命有關 ;)

叔叔:

咁緊要!唔怪得你咁 Fit!

Dr. Kwok:

真係估唔到會這裏會有人識穿我馬虎了事 ;) 閣下不會是在英國讀心理學的罷?話說回來,因為我沒有貼上 Post-Hoc Test。既然你問到,我已經補回 :)

狂人字

Ka Yun 說...

鋼琴應算作敲擊樂而非弦樂。

這或許會更支持你的結論:「弦樂手會長命些」...

狂人 - Paul Sin 說...

家潤兄:

謝謝糾正!你是對的,那只會叫所有人都去學小提琴 ;)

Paul

Snowdrops 說...

Hi, just saw your post from a blogger's shared items and came here. Great little experiment. Perhaps another factor to consider is how prolonged exposure to classical music itself (simply listening to what one plays during all those hours practising, over and above how practising music itself may well be a form of exercise as Paul suggests) could also have health benefits. Think there were some studies done about how exposure to classical music helps to improve the cognitive development of little kids and how it calms prisoners with anger problems. If one were to make the case that better mental health leads to longer lifespan, and accept that classical music improves mental health, then one could make the case that these musicians had longer lifespans relative to their peers due in part to prolonged exposure to classical music, over and above how much of a workout the music practice itself may prove to be for the body and for the brain.

But overall though, I suspect the biggest factor is more to do with the wealth of those famous musicians relative to the average household at the time. The BMJ just published a study that demonstrates, from data taken from the period 1921 to 2007 in the UK, that longevity is closely correlated with one's wealth.

狂人 - Paul Sin 說...

Hi Snowdrops,

Thanks for dropping by, and agree with you on the impact of music and wealth. That's why it doesn't worth to evaluate the difference of being a musician; rather, I'm more interested in the difference made by the instrument they mastered ;)

Nevertheless, this is just for fun la ;)

Cheers,
Paul

Erik 說...

唔怪得拎親結他出街都感覺到有o的俾人睇唔起既感覺... 原來大家典型既印象係"band 友=道友"。 =D

John Lennon, Dimebag Darrell = 槍殺
Kurt Cobain, Elliott Smith = 自殺
Jon Bonham = 好似係電死

狂人 - Paul Sin 說...

哈哈,Erik,對不起,我並沒有真的做過搖滾樂手死因的統計。你的例子也許說明了毒品只是其中一個「果」,不是「因」。「因」可能與容易低落的情緒或比較偏激的言論有關亦不可知……我倒從沒有看不起結他手 ;)